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Constance Gamett had been a classics scholar at Cambridge. Although she and her husband Edward were interested in Russian literature, neither of them had studied the language, and when she read Turgenev in January of , it was probably in a French translation.

In July of she made an interesting acquaintance: Russian political exile Felix Volkhovskii. Volkhovskii was a real-life martyr to the revolutionary cause, a suspected member of "a secret society" who had endured arrest, six years of solitary confinement in the Peter-Paul Fortress, and eleven years of exile in Sibe- ria, whence he escaped to England via Japan and Vancouver.

All of this, along with his "expressive brown eyes and thick straight falling hair," RG , his prison-induced deafness, and the piquancy of his widower- hood through suicide made him a particularly exotic acquaintance for the modest young Cambridge classics graduate.

And Mrs. Garnett's study of the Russian language began, momentously, when Volkhovskii gave her a grammar book and a dictionary.

Given our present topic, we must also note Volkhovskii' s suspected association with the notorious Sergei Ne- chaev - the prototype for the villainous Petr Verkhovenskii of Dosto- evsky's novel Demons.

Isn't it better to see it as a test case for Dostoevsky's fantastic realism? Life is always stranger than fiction.

In the sunnner of , Volkhovskii introduced the Gametts to an- other charismatic and interesting Russian exile.

He was of medium height and burly with very broad shoulders, a dark beard, dark eyes, a big forehead and a broad Russian nose.

He was very strong and he had the gentleness, the quietness, which so often goes with great physical strength in men.

He had also great warmth of heart [ RG 81 This man bore the intriguing adopted sumame Stepniak, "man of the steppes.

His worst crime, in Mrs. Garnett's opinion, was his penchant for taking books out of the British Museum during lunchtime.

Bernard Shaw also admired his per- sonable and disarming nature: "he betrayed the heart of an affectionate child behind a powerful and very life intellect.

Stepniak and Con- stance Gamett became fast friends, and she began visiting him for weekly The Strange Path of Dostoevsky 's Novels into the English Tradition 51 Russian language lessons.

As you will recall in this crime he had been assisted by. Munir Sendich. On Reading Russian Literature in English.

In this case, as so often with things Russian, the rawness and elemental violence of the original - peo- ple and texts - presented an unprecedented challenge to the complacency of the target culture.

Rachel May points out that interest in foreign cul- tures tends to follow political trends.

English readers began to read Rus- sian literature after the revolution, and the "Russian craze" 25 coincided with the publication of Constance Gamett's translations of Dostoevsky's novels between and Both sides compromise: Dostoevsky is tamed and toned down, but for their part the English read- ers show a willingness to taste stronger fare than Turgenev who had been until then the most widely translated, accessible, and of course digestible, of Russian authors.

The same can be said of the people. The dangerous criminals who served as a conduit for the entrance of Russian literature into the Enghsh literary tradition were themselves domesticated when they settled there.

They became members of the liberal, educated elite, Russian tutors, men of letters. Stepniak, for example, had a "deep sympathy for the arts and considerable knowledge of music and literature" RG The paths taken by Dostoevsky's works into Enghsh represent a combination of re- bellion and compromise: the existing English was challenged by new forms of expression, rawer themes, and a deeper spiritual engagement than had been seen in secular literature.

At the same time, Gamett's deco- rous style, the reassuringly methodical nature of her work, smoothed the passage of these powerful books into their new home.

The path leads through blood, terror, and revolution, but it is unbroken, and although our subject here has too often been death: the death of the author, the death of the au- thor, this has ultimately been a stoiy of his resurrection through the life- giving work of translation.

Dostoevsky Studies. It's easy to understand why. As to Chekhov, though it can hardly be said that he used his plays to attack capitalism, the official line on him at this time was that he was a "realist.

By the last years of the nineteenth century, he had an international following and was aheady the topic of hundreds of articles in the English-language press in the United States.

The aging, bearded "sage of Yasnaya Poliana" attracted attention because of his pacifiism, no doubt, but even more because of his fi-equent confi-ontations with the Russian autocracy and the Russian Or- thodox Church.

For many years, it had been commonplace in the Ameri- can press to represent Russia as the very embodiment of tyranny and op- pression, so Tolstoy's excommunication in immediately became an intemational news story, as did every occasion on which the Russian writer brought upon himself the disfavor of the tsar.

The Forward re- ported Tolstoy's participation in student and worker demonstrations and the rumored attempt of the authorities to banish him fi-om the country, both in so did The New York Times.

The same paper followed him closely in the early months of , when he was ill again, so did The New York Times.

One can see ads in the Yiddish press for multi- volume editions of Tolstoy's works in Yiddish translation. Arbayter Tsaytung began its serialization on 30 April , and the Forward began its serialization one week later, on 6 May.

References to him, in fact, are rela- tively rare. Translations of Dostoevsky's works into Westem European languages did not pour out of the publishing houses at the same rate as did translations of Tolstoy's works.

When Dostoevsky did find an enthusiastic reception outside his native country, it was often among readers who were caught up in the tum-of-the-century Nietzsche craze and perceived in each man a kindred spirit of the other.

References to Nietzsche in the Yiddish press in the United States are very difficult to fmd till after the first decade of the twentieth century.

No immigrant Jewish intellectual was more committed than Abra- ham Cahan to raising the cultural literacy level of his less educated fellow Yiddish- speaking immigrants.

Cahan, who had arrived in the United States in early , devoted much of his activity over the next four dec- ades to schooling his readers in literature, and he felt particularly strongly the obligation to open the eyes of those readers to the Russian classics.

Like other contributors to the left-wing press, he seems to have been a bit flummoxed by the author of Crime and Punishment.

In an article for Di Arbayter Tsaytung in , Cahan reviewed the short novel Nedda, by the Italian novelist Giovanni Verga , who enjoyed a respectable international reputation at the end of the nineteenth century.

For Cahan, this was a simple exercise in his signature formulaic literary criticism: assess the work's "truthftjlness," determine whether the work offers a blistering critique of capitalism, and then declare that it is or is not a genuine example of realism.

The prosaic title that Cahan chose for this piece, "A Good Novel," announced at the outset that his judgment was favorable.

What struck Cahan particularly about Nedda was the author's gift for specifically psychological description, and in this connection he comments that the true master of this technique is Dostoevsky: "A con- demned man going to the gallows ponders for a second, for example, how the executioner's suit is missing a button.

Lama Strettell London: T. Fisher Unwin, Like any good nineteenth-century Russian progressive. Boudin countered that literature had a duty primarily to in- struct.

Claiming that his opponent's theory would lead to the belief that good literature could be utterly devoid of thoughts.

Boudin cites examples of classic authors from whom, he says, it would be absurd to expect no thoughts.

This is the famous article in which the author describes Dostoevsky as morbidly fas- cinated with cruelty and with tormenting people as an end in itself One fmds the words muchitel ' tormentor , muchitel 'nyi tormenting and re- lated verbs on virtually every page, sometimes a half-dozen times.

The author placed the great Russian critic in a dis- tinguished lineage that included Belinsky, Dobrohubov, Chemyshevsky, and Pisarev. He spoke, as progressives frequently did when praising a Rus- sian literary critic, of Mikhailovsky' s credentials as a pohtical figure, citing, among other virtues, his love for mankind and his role in introducing his fellow Russians to Marxism.

And he spoke of Mikhailovsky' s gifts specifi- cally as a reader, citing his abihty to understand the psychology of the au- thors he studied.

Among these authors is, of course, Dostoevsky. The name 'cruel talent,' which he gave to Dosto- evsky, has become generally accepted.

Syrkin was altemately a Zionist and a "territorialist" that is, one who believed that the Jews should have their own nation but without insisting that the nation necessarily be the an- cestral homeland in Palestine.

The author saves some of his strongest words for Russian writers of the nineteenth century, hsting Gogol, Dostoevsky, and, oddly, Tolstoy who in had expressed his sympathy for the Jews in his What Is a Jew?

In Dostoevsky' s hatred for the Jews, Christian socialism, the Christian socialist religion of love, cries out against the materialist socialism and antihistorical radicalism of the Jews.

But if he had ac- cess to Dostoevsky' s Diary of a Writer, he would have found plenty of evidence to support his claim.

One can certainly debate the assertion that ' N. Ben-Hilel, "Mikhayiovski als kritiker' Mikhailovsky as critic , Forverts. Nachman Syrkin, "Dos idishe problem un di idishe frage," Di Tsukunft.

The quoted material appears on pp. I myself believe the situation is far more complicated than this. In the Diary of a Writer, it's not hard to find statements like this: "If there exists such a pestilence as the kulaks, does it follow from this that Jews are necessary?

We need to restrict both We may and must restrict the rights of the Jews in many cases. Why, why support this Status in statu?

Eighty million [Russians] exist only to support three million Jews. The translator of the version serialized in Abend Blatt was Moyshe Gormidor, signing himself, as he generally did, "M.

Even though Gormidor eventually became a steady contributor to the Yiddish press once he ar- rived in the United States, he was far more at home in Russian than in the primary language of his fellow Jewish immigrants.

In fact, in the United States he led something of a dual joumalistic existence, publishing in both Russian-language and Yiddish periodicals.

Abbreviated hereafter as PSS. Ferbrekhen un shtrof: A groyser psikhologisher roman fun F. Dostoyevski Crime and Punishment: A great psychological novel by F.

Dostoevsky , trans. Baranov, Abend Blatt 25 March-4 October At the same time, they were aware of their readers' backgrounds and were generally willing to address Jewishness if it arose in connection with anti-Semitism.

And finally they considered themselves to be. So what comes to mind are passages having to do with religious belief, Jews, and radical politics.

The narrator makes this notorious remark about the character: "'On his face could be seen that etemal grumbling sorrow that is so sourly imprinted on all faces of the Jewish tribe without exception.

Gormidor leaves the remark largely intact, though he omits the ''without exception. Gormidor does nothing to give his speech any ethnic markers in the short conversation with Svidrigailov.

In the scene where Sonia reads to Raskolnikov fi-om the Gospel. Soma looked at the ground and remained silent.

See To the Other Shore, p. Abend Blatt. Russian ongmal: Dostoevsky. Find me the chapter quickly. The Russian word translated here as oyfshteyung is voskresenie, "resur- rection.

Gormidor's choice of the verbal noun from the ordinary word meaning to stand up oyfshteyn , however, does not necessarily reveal anything.

The true test in this scene would have been Gormidor's handling of the famous words that Martha, Lazarus' s sister, speaks to Jesus in John 1 "I know that he [Lazarus] shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day.

Since Yiddish oyfshteyn and oyfshteyung are virtually the same words, respectively, as the German auferstehen and Auferstehung, it would have been natural to expect Yiddish translators to use this related pair for this passage.

But most Yiddish translations and, believe it or not, there were a number of Yiddish New Testaments of this passage distinguish between the two words.

Of the two most widely dis- tributed, one simply uses a Yiddish spelling of Luther's Auferstehung, and the other uses tkhies hameysim!

This edition renders John like this: "Ikh veys az er vet oyfshtehen in der oyfershtehung im letsten tog" emphasis added for the words meaning, respectively, "rise" and "resurrection".

The The Progressive Yiddish Press in America 61 The problem is that we never get to see what Gormidor might have done with Martha's remark, because he omits the entire passage, some thousand words long, in which Sonia reads the Gospel story.

I'll return to this point in a moment. In the scene in which Raskolnikov confesses to Sonia, there are just a couple of phrases that would strike the reader as religious.

The first is Sonia' s injunction to Raskohiikov to proclaim to the world that he has murdered. Gormidor has left this sentence unmolested, but he has Sonia tell Raskolnikov to proclaim not that he has committed murder but that he is "the murderer.

Raskolnikov asks Sonia if what she is saying is that he must turn himself in to the police. In the original, knowing that his question is completely disingenuous, she answers, "Accept suffering and redeem yourself thereby, that's what you need to do.

There's a crime, and then there's punishment - at the hands of the authorities. Where Gormidor obviously felt most strongly the need to protect his readers from Dostoevsky's original was in the epilogue.

Long stretches of text are missing, and others are radically altered. The entire passage in which the narrator recounts Raskolnikov' s trial, for example, is excised.

It's difficult to say whether Gormidor merely wanted to save space here or whether he was trying to protect his readers from confusion most widely available translation of the New Testament into Yiddish came out many years after Gormidor's translation, in It was by Harry Einspruch, a Jewish convert to Christi- anity.

Einspruch renders John like this: ''Ikh veys, az er vet tsurik oyfshteyn bay tkhies-hameysim in dem letstn tog" emphasis added for the words meaning "rise" and "resurrection".

PSS, Abend Blatt, 18 August , p. Raskohiikov has maintained till quite late in the book that he murdered in the spirit of one of his theories, yet in the epi- logue we read that he claims during the judicial proceedings to have committed his crime because of poverty and to have turned himself in out of a genuine desire to repent.

Whatever Gormidor's reasons might have been, the reader doesn't need to spend any time wondering about Raskol- nikov's motivation in this passage.

But one thing is certain, and that is that, with only one or two ex- ceptions, if there was any suggestion of religious doctrine or anything that appeared to defame the Russian revolutionary movement, Gormidor al- tered or deleted it.

The second part of the epilogue contains the story of Raskolnikov's religious renewal and the clearly allegorical nightmare about a dystopia in which radical political ideology has taken possession of the human race.

Here Gormidor was apparently so worried about his readers' sensibilities that he cut and altered more than he left intact. The religious renewal is reduced to a bare-bones story about Raskolnikov's falling in love with Sonia and feel- ing contrite about the way he has treated her in the past.

Dostoevsky emphasizes the true content of the epilogue by using voskres "he was resurrected" and related words no fewer than six times in the fmal pages of the novel if we include voskresnyi, the adjective for voskresen 'e, "Sunday".

We leam about Raskolnikov's "fiiture resurrec- tion and future new view of life," we learn about his "future, full resurrec- tion into a new life," we leam that "love had resurrected them," we leam that "he had been resurrected," and we leam that Sonia once again reads to Raskolnikov about "the resurrection of Lazams.

Either entire pas- sages were deleted, or Gormidor changed the sense into something safely remote from any association with Christianity.

Even the narrator's rela- tively innocuous remark that Raskohiikov' s food was bad "except on Sundays and holidays" krome voskresnykh i prazdnichnykh dnei gets deleted.

The PSS, , , , , From "On s mucheniem zadaval sebe etot vopros The Progressive Yiddish Press in America 63 transition from "dialectics" to life, the Gospel that lies under Raskol- nikov's pillow, the reading of the story of Lazarus, even the statement that the hero's new life would not be acquired easily - all this is omitted.

To anyone who has read the novel in the original or in a reasonably accurate translation, the results in Gormidor's translation are almost comical.

Take, for example, the passage that follows the moment when Raskolnikov has cast himself at Soma's feet. Here is what Dostoevsky wrote: They wanted to speak but could not.

Tears came to their eyes. Both of them were pale and thin, but in these sickly and pale faces there already shone the davMi of a renewed, future, full resurrection into a new life.

Love had resurrected them: the heart of one contained the infinite sources of life for the heart of the other.

They agreed to wait and be patient. They had seven years left, and till then how much intolerable torture and how much infinite happiness there would be!

But he had been resurrected, and he knew this, completely felt it with his entire re- newed being, while she — she was simply living through his life and his life alone!

Here is what Gormidor does with it: They wanted to speak, but they could not. Both of them were pale and sick, but in these pale and sick faces there shone the morn- ing star of a renewed future, of dead people who had come to life again.

Love had made them alive. The heart of one contained an infinite source of life for the heart of the other.

They had seven years left, but he had come to life, and he knew this and felt it with his entire being, and she — she lived only with his life.

He even omits the one exclusively Jewish scriptural allusion in the Epilogue. Dostoevsky had written this: From the distant, opposite bank, a song, barely audible, came across.

There, in the boundless steppe, which was bathed in sunlight, the voirts of nomadic people darkened into barely perceptible spots.

Raskolnikov sat and looked without moving, without tearing himself away. His thoughts drifted into daydreams, into contemplation.

He was not thinking about anything, but a certain anguish was agitating and tormenting him. Here's how Gormidor translated it: "From the other bank a song barely reached him.

Over there is another world altogether, over there it is free, and a certain displeasure agitated and tormented him. Everyone familiar with the novel will re- member what Dostoevsky wrote: That whole day [Sonia] was in a state of agitation, and that night she was taken ill again.

But she was so happy that she was almost afraid of her happiness. Seven years, only seven years! At the beginning of their happiness, at various moments, they had both been ready to regard these seven years as if they had been seven days.

He did not even realize that he would not come into this new life for free, that he would still have to buy it at great cost, to pay for it with some great future deed.

But here a new story is already beginning, the story of the gradual renewal of a man, the story of his gradual rebirth, of the gradual passage from one world into another, of an acquaintance with a new, hitherto completely unknown reality.

This might form the subject of a new story, but our current story is finished. Here a new story could begin, the story of how a man comes to life and is newly created, but this story is ended.

Of all the material we've examined, Syrkin's article is no doubt the ex- ception, since he alone seems to have addressed an actual idea that Dosto- evsky presented.

Zionism and territorialism were anathema to almost all the writers who contributed to the progressive Yiddish daily and weekly press.

The party line for publications like Ar- bayter Tsaytung, Abend Blatt, and the Forward was socialism, and since sociaUsm was construed as a cosmopolitan movement that recognized no PSS, Abend Blatt, 3 October , p.

The dots at the end of the first paragraph are in the original. Abend Blatt, 4 October , p. The Progressive Yiddish Press in America 65 ethnic, religious, or national distinctions, no notice was given to any theo- ries or movements that were designed specifically for the Jews.

In these lower-brow publications, Dostoevskv' was consigned to a category' that safely purged him of any content that might threaten the sanctity' of '"realism" as a political-literary theory.

The immigrant laborers who took their news from a paper like the Forward would happily not need even to think about these questions.

Some of them have even found their way into literature. In Norwegian folklore we have the stupid troll, a human-like creature with a name so typically Nordic that nobody has even tried to translate it into foreign languages, hi England as well as in Russia these animals are simply referred to by their Nordic names: trolls or trolli.

Typical features of these creatures are great strength and immense size. According to various authors, they are even stronger than bears and higher than trees.

Some of them have "eyes like tinplates and noses as long as a rake handle"', and they love to destroy churches by throwing huge rocks at them.

So when the Norwegian boys were competing with the trolls for beautiful girls in the forest-clad mountains, the trolls usually had an easy match.

But only until the brave boys came up with a conven- ient strategy to do away with them. And they always found this strategy, since the Norwegian boys were much smarter than their clumsy rivals.

At any rate according to the tellers of Norwegian fairy-tales. Of course, some of these horrible creatures have also found their way into Russian folklore.

They are all firmly rooted in what we usually call the subconscious. Here I shall concentrate on a few examples found in Dostoevsky and his great rival Lev Tolstoy.

As different as these writers may be, both of them share a curious fascination for death-dealing monsters. Fortunately, P.

Jubileumsutgave Forste bind, Oslo , p. My translation, - G. Dangerous Creatures in Dostoevski] and Tolstoy 61 most of these monsters are much smaller than the ones we fmd in our fairy-tales.

Let us, for example, take a look at the terrible creatures at the end of Crime and Punishment. Raskolnikov was in hospital all through the latter part of Lent and Easter.

When he began to recover he remembered the dreams that had visited him while he lay in his fever and delinum. He had dreamt in his illness that the whole world was condemned to fall victim to a temble, unknown pestilence which was moving on Europe out of the depths of Asia.

There had appeared a new strain of trichinae, microscopic crea- tures parasitic in men's bodies. But these creatures were endowed with intelli- gence and W'ill.

People who were infected immediately became like men pos- sessed and out of their minds Men killed one another in senseless rage All things and all men were penshing.

The plague grew and spread wider and wider. In the whole world only a few could save themselves, a chosen handful of the pure, w ho were destined to found a new race of men and a new life, and to renew and cleanse the earth; but nobody had ever seen them anywhere, no- body had heard their voices or their words.

Nevertheless, the reader, as in the biblical parable of the Gadarene swine, here gets a warning not only against the horrors of revolution, but also against the super virus of.

Clearly, great literature is often ahead of its time. Passing on to The Idiot, we are met by an even more terrible creature.

It is this image of the tarantula that creates Ippolit's nightmare. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Jessie Coulson.

With an in- troduction by Richard Peace. Konstantin Mochulsky. His Life coid Work. Princeton We further learn of this crawling arachnid that it was brown and covered with scales, that it gradually tapered off toward the tail, so that the tip of the tail was only a sixth of an inch thick.

Ahnost two inches from the head at an angle of forty-five degrees, two legs nearly four inches long extended from the trunk, one on each side.

Most convincingly this crea- ture from hell, measured with great detail, is presented by the author in such a way as to suggest some awesome vision from the Apocalypse.

Significantly, Ippolit dies a few days later, having become a prisoner of the beast. In a brilliant article from Ralph E. Matlaw has pointed to the many insects, spiders and reptiles used by Dostoevsky in his stories and novels.

As we shall see, Tolstoy's use of animals is very different. Whereas Dostoevsky seems to hate his animals, Tolstoy loves and re- spects his.

On the whole, Dostoevsky' s presentations of animals are rather som- bre. There is much more love and knowledge of animals in Tolstoy's de- scriptions, especially when his characters are out hunting with their fa- vourite hounds.

This is particularly the case in the famous hunting scenes at Otradnoe in War and Peace. Tolstoy shows a rare ability to look into the soul of any animal, especially horses, making Turgenev wonder if he had not been a horse himself in an earlier life.

Tolstoy's interest in animals was also evoked when his brother Niko- lay told him about a wonderful secret that was inscribed on a little green branch, hidden on the outskirts of Yasnaya Polyana.

When the branch was ' Ibid. Harvard Slavic Studies, vol. Ill, Cambridge , po. Dangerous Creatures in Dostoevski] and Tolstoy 69 found and the secret discovered, Nikolay assured his brother, then all the people would live in happiness and harmony with each other.

Suffering and evil would disappear from the Earth, - only love would prevail among people. There is every indication that Nikolay was inspired by the reports of the "Moravskie brat'ja" Die mährischen Brüder , a Moravian religious soci- ety from the fifteenth century that was preaching pacifism and Apostolic Christianity.

Even if the name "Moravskie brat'ja" was probably due to a linguistic misunderstanding, the thought of "brotherhood" was later to become a point of departure for Tolstoy's hfe-long search for the brotherhood of man: The ideal of the Ant Brotherhood Later on, ants are used to demonstrate Moscow's rapid resurrection after the French have left the city.

One motive only they all had in common: a de- sire to get to the place that had been called Moscow, to apply their activities there.

By the autumn of the number, ever increasing and increasing, exceeded what it had been in However, much more important than the ants are the bees, insects living together in a social community.

Polnoe sobranie socinenij. Mv translation. War and Peace. Everyman's Library-. Volume 3. As a matter of fact, his sixty beehives with a quarter of a million bees are still operative at Yas- naya Polyana.

No wonder, then, that the bees became an important inspi- ration in Tolstoy's creative work. He even saw the life of bees as a model for human behaviour.

In the company of non-intellectual, hard-working bees, man lives closer to nature, spared any thoughts that can only be harmful to human beings.

The benefit of ants and bees has been pointed out by a great number of journals in the 18th and 19th centuries, for instance in Novikov's Truten ', later in Severnaya pchela and Trans-Volga Ant, to name only a few of them.

In Norway we even had a series of banks with the name of The Bee. So be kind to the bees! Do not forget that to hurt only one bee could result in attacks from all the bees, and even if hundreds of bees are crushed, thousands of others will attack you in revenge.

No wonder, then, that War and Peace has a great many references to bees, especially in the last two volumes of the novel.

Here is a character- istic example from the end of the book: A bee settling on a flower has stung a child. And the child is afraid of bees and declares that bees exist to sting people.

A poet admires the bee sucking from the chalice of a flower, and says it exists to suck the fragrance of flowers.

A bee- keeper, seeing the bee collect pollen from flowers and carry it to the hive, says that it exists to gather honey.

A botanist notices that the bee flying with the pollen of a male flower to a pistil fertilizes the latter, and sees in this the purpose of the bee's existence.

All that is accessible to man is the relation of the life of the bee to other manifestations of life. Socinenie L.

Langstrota, 4-oe izdanie. SPb , str. Volume 3, p. Dron may be a little lazy now and then, but he can also be as hard-working as a bee, thus re- minding us of a "male-bee", a drohne, coming into being through virgin birth or parthenogenesis.

In other words, Dron must be an ideal figure for Tolstoy. Herzen described it as a pistol shot ringing out in the dark night of Nikolaevan Russia.

The syllogism of the west is unknown to us. Three years later Kireevsky took up this challenge in his V otvet A.

Khomiakovu, asserting that Catholicism had broken away from the Eastern Church by placing rationalism above tradition, and external intel- ligence above spiritual intelligence, and arguing that it was precisely the syllogism which was to blame.

Syllogistic reasoning had led Catholicism to insert the filioque clause into the dogma of the Trinity; it was also re- sponsible for making the Pope head of the Church instead of Christ, turn- ing him into a temporal power, and ultimately pronouncing his infallibil- ity: The existence of God in the whole of Christendom was being proved by the syl- logism; the entire totality of faith was based on syllogistic scholasticism; the In- quisition, the Jesuits - in a word, all the features of Catholicism developed by virtue of that same formal process of reason, so that Protestantism, which the A.

Gertsen, Sobranie sochinenii v tridtsati tomakh, Moscow , Vol. For all their profound disagreements, Chaadaev and Kireevsky agreed on one thing: the syllogism was the logical method of the west - it was totally foreign to Russia.

It is perhaps not without significance that when Gogol, in his story The Nose Nos , mocks the pretentiousness of the westernized system of ranks in Nikolaevan Russia, he does so through a pseudo-syllogism: Premiss: Kovalev has been recently promoted to collegiate assessor.

Minor premiss : He cannot for a moment forget this fact. Conclusion: Therefore he never calls himself collegiate assessor, but always ma- jor.

A would-be logical argument has been reduced to absurdity, and it is a similar process, which we see over and over again in the works of Dosto- evsky.

Buckle's theories on civilization might appear to be logically correct, but logic is not all: But man is so partial to system and abstract deducUon.

Aristotle, the father of the syllogism, laid down that "all deductive in- ference, when correctly stated, is syllogistic".

Izbrannye stat'i. Dosto- evskii. Polnoe sobranie sochinenn v iridtsati lomakh. We have seen this in Gogol, but perhaps, more than any other work of Russian literature, Dosto- evsky's Notes from Underground demonstrates Chaadaev's assertion that the syllogism of the west is foreign to Russia, and lends full support to Kireevsky's thesis that Russian wisdom is the opposite of logical abstrac- tion.

The characters in Dostoevsky's novels who represent the "foreign" values of the west base their behaviour on syllogistic reasoning.

Thus Raskolnikov has invented a rational theory, based on a syllogism: Premiss: All men can be divided into two classes the "ordinary" and the "ex- traordinary".

Minor premiss : I am a man. Conclusion: Therefore I belong to one of the two classes. The class he choses for self-identification is that of the extraordinary - the "supermen", but, it will be noted, the final component of his syllogism actually leaves open the question of choice between the "two classes".

Over and over again the experience of the novel shows that, in fact, Ras- kolnikov belongs to both - that like "all men" in the premises, the indi- vidual man, Raskolnikov, is himself divided in two, and will ultimately be defeated by the unforeseen logic of his own pseudo-syllogistic reasoning.

In the words of the underground man: "Let us grant, that this is a law of logic, but perhaps, certainly not one of human kind". The syllogistic reasoning of Dostoevsky's characters may have to be deduced, but the more rational Tolstoy can provide one of his characters with a clearly stated syllogism.

But western logic brings Ivan Il'ich no com- fort, he can only fmd this towards the end of the story in the self-effacing compassion of his peasant servant, Gerasim.

Tolstoy, Sobranie sochi- nenii V dvenadtsati tomakh, Moscow, , Vol. A type scholastics called Barbara. See: Russell, p. Other types are Celarent, Darii, and Ferio ibid.

If God does not exist, then all will is mine, and I am obliged to proclaim my wilful- ness" 10, If this were reduced to a clearer syllogistic format, along the lines of Tolstoy's Caius, we might have: Premiss: The will of an all-powerful God makes me powerless.

Minor premiss : God does not exist. Conclusion: Therefore I am empowered to will. Paradoxically, perhaps, this final deduction leads Kirillov to the same conclusion that faced Caius - the inevitability of his own death: the only way that Kirillov can prove the supremacy of his own will is through sui- cide.

Kirillov is a nihilist influenced by extreme western ideas, but his al- ter-ego in the novel, Shatov, embodies an extreme form of Slavophilism.

For him, God, rather than failing to exist, has been transmogrified into the mystic concept of the "people", and under pressure from Stavrogin, he makes no rationalistic deduction about the relationship of God to man, but an intuitive statement of faith: "God is the synthetic personality of the whole people, from its beginnings right up to its end" 10, This confrontation of westem with national values in Dostoevsky's novels suggests a further parallel with The Death of Ivan ITich, The movement of Tolstoy's story, on a more practical level, is away from the cold abstraction of the westem syllogism to the more personal, and reas- suring, presence of the common people as represented by Gerashn.

The confrontation in Dostoevsky is more metaphysical - it is a movement away from the cold pseudo-logic of Kirillov towards Shatov' s faith in the Russian people: for it is this theme that is taken up by Stefan Trofi- movich, when at the end of The Devils, he becomes the bearer of the novel's message.

In simple terms its logic might appear to echo that of Kirillov: Premiss: God is the source of all morality.

Minor premiss: God does not exist. Conclusion: Therefore morality does not exist. It is not God that Ivan rejects, but the world created by God, and this rejection is based on his inability to comprehend the need for human suffering.

An argu- ment nearer to Ivan's position, based on the evidence he adduces in his "RebeUion", might run as follows: Premiss: God is the source of all morality.

Minor premiss: God is indifferent to morality. Conclusion: Therefore morality itself is an open question.

As we have aheady seen, Kireevsky ascribed to the baneful influence of the syllogism, not only the institution of the Inquisition, but the Pope's assumption of temporal power, and the substituting of himself for Christ.

All these elements are reflected in Ivan's "Legend of the Grand Inquisi- tor". The logic of the west has corrected the truth of Christ. A further interesting feature of Ivan's rejection of God's world is the fact, pointed out by Berdiaev among others, that it bears a striking resem- blance to Belinsky's rejection of Hegel in a letter to Botkin: I humbly thank you Egor Fedorovich Hegel.

I bow to your philosopher's cap; but with all the respect due to your philosophical philistinism, I have the honour to report to you that if I managed to climb on to the highest rung of the ladder of development - even there I would ask you to give me an account of all the vic- tims of chance happenings, of superstition, of the Inquisition, of Philip the Sec- ond and other things, otherwise I would throw myself down from the highest rung head first.

I do not want happiness even for free, if I am not reassured about each of my blood brothers. In rejecting Hegel, Belinsky is also rejecting a triadic system of logic, be- cause, although Hegel's philosophical method is described as dialectic, it is nevertheless based on a triadic progression: a thesis, b antithesis, c synthesis, behind which, as Bertrand Russell has pointed out, lies the in- fluence of the syllogism through Kant's antinomies to the dialectic.

Ivan may be rejecting God, but Dostoevsky himself is rejecting a false god - the triadic thought of the west, which dominated Russian social thinkers throughout the nine- teenth century.

The influence of such thought is clearly seen in Chemyshevsky, Mik- hailovsky, Lavrov, and, of course, the Russian Marxists, with their triad of feudalism, capitaUsm and socialism.

There is a large measure of the mystical in them, connected with properties ascribed to the number three. It is, of course, an ancient triad, as exemplified in the three classical stages of development: the Golden Age, the Silver Age, and the Age of Iron, but in the ancient world the triad was regressive - not the optimistic progression of nineteenth-century westem thought.

They inhere in inspired revelation, yet it is curious that the Golden Age takes on this revealed role throughout his writing. But just as in its classical perception the Golden Age was doomed to face degeneration, so too the harmony of Dostoevsky' s evocation of the image is also threatened.

For Stavrogin in The Devils, it is the symbol of his own guilt, the little red spider, which blots out the shining image, and for Versilov in A Raw Youth, this dawn of an idyllic world is also the sun setting on European civilisation.

Here are two figures embodying westem values, but perhaps most significant of all is the hero of The Dream of a Comic Man, who so wishes to be- heve in the Golden Age, but whose westem values and rationality actu- ally destroy the idyll.

In Dostoevsky such sublime experiences are merely glimpsed, like Myshkin's perception of harmony and beauty in The Idiot Idiot. These moments are timeless, as Kirillov also confirms in The Devils "When the whole man achieves happiness there will no longer be any time" [10, ].

Unfortunately, as in the dream of the Golden Age, such glimpses seem inherently flawed. Myshkin's revelation is a result of his disease - epilepsy, yet in spite of this knowledge, he will not renounce it, neither will the comic man renounce his vision of the Golden Age, in spite of the fact that it was only the dream of an idyll, and an idyll moreover, which his own values destroyed.

In The Brothers Karamazov Alesha experi- ences a similar epiphany in the monastery garden. Again it is a dream, yet it will stay with him all his life.

This is a very Dostoevskian mode of thought. Such spiritual revela- tions stand outside logic, as does the image of Christ himself It is on this issue that Shatov attempts to probe Stavrogin in The Devils: But was it not you who told me that if it were mathematically proved to you that the truth lay elsewhere than in Christ, then you would prefer to remain with Christ rather than with the truth?

Did you not say this? Did you not say it? But as long as he believes in his heart, logical argument has no dangers for him.

For Dostoevsky, as for Gogol, it is the logic of the syllogism that is ab- surd. Ideas should not be the product of cold ratiocination, but of feeling.

That is good" 10, Cold mathematical proof is as nothing when set beside the inspiring image. Dostoevsky himself used Belinsky's phrase: "thinking in images" to describe his art, and it is the image which uplifts many of his heroes.

Those of them, however, who choose the syl- logistic thinking of the west, come to a bad end. It is the syllogism which leads Kirillov to suicide; it brings Ivan Karamazov to the point of mental breakdown, and if even here he still grasps at reason, it is the mathemati- cal "absurd" logic of the Russian Lobachevsky which offers him hope, rather than the Euclidean logic of the west.

It is through syllogistic think- ing that Raskolnikov ends up in Siberia, and although at the end of the novel there is the suggestion of salvation, it will come through feeling and the conquering of western modes of thought: But he was unable on that evening to think of anything constantly and for long, or concentrate on anything by way of thought; yes, and he might not have been able to decide anything consciously; he could only feel.

Life had taken the place of dialectics, and something completely different had to work itself out in his consciousness 6, It could well be that professional philosophers might challenge the valid- ity of the apparent syllogisms ascribed to Dostoevsky' s characters, but that, in itself, is part of the point.

In as much as it illustrates Chaadaev's contention that the Russians were unfamiliar with the western syllogism.

Perhaps, more than any other Russian writer, Dostoevsky demonstrates the contention of Chaadaev and Kireevsky that the syllogism of the west is inimical to Russian thought.

In the introduction to his seminal study L. Dostoevsky' s man-god is especially in the limelight when a match is established between Dostoevsky' s and Friedrich Nietzsche's line of thought.

All quotes from and references to Dostoevslvy's works are from the Polnoe sobranie sochinenii v tridtsati tomakh compiled by the Institute of Russian Literature of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, , cited as PSS, followed by the volume and page number.

English translations are mine. Transliteration follows the Library of Congress system, but names are anghcized in the form in which they are likely to appear in English Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, etc.

Berdiaev, [] 54; However, if one gives close scrutiny to Dostoevsky"s works, the chelovekobog in fact only occurs three times, and.

In fact, though, the word is originally coined by- one of his contemporaries. He started as a liberal, but soon indulged in socialist thought and moved on to egalitarian communism.

He drew out a plan to found secret revolutionary societies that 82 Nel Gh Ilaer t would prepare and instigate a popular uprising in order to overthrow the czarist regime.

In the Petrashevsky group was arrested and sentenced to hard labor in Siberia. Upon his return to central Russia in , Speshnev showed an interest in the activity of the revolutionary democrats of the s, who were ideologically supported by Nikolai Chemyshevsky and Dmitrii Pisarev Saraskina, 99ff ; Frank, ff.

During the Petrashevsky gatherings and other secret radical meetings Speshnev presented some lectures on pohtics, economics and religion.

His intellectual legacy is however only retained in two philosophical let- ters that are most probably written in and addressed to the PoHsh journalist Karl Edmond Khoetsky.

These letters contain materials on Speshnev' s lectures on religion. A convinced materialist, Speshnev argues in these letters that any metaphysical system is at ground untenable, for it is merely grounded on "unprovable and gratuitous hypotheses" Speshnev, [] For Speshnev there is only empirical reality and he therefore finds any attempt to make statements about an otherwordly reality unfeasible and absurd.

But, while assenting to Feuerbach' s method of demon- The bulk of Speshnev's written materials was destroyed after his arrest. There are still letters from the family archive, for the most part addressed to his mother and dealing with practical, daily life matters pubUshed in Saraskina, The Man-God in Dostoevsky 's Works 83 strating the non-existence of God, Speshnev does not acknowledge his final anthropology, which is in his opinion still a reminiscent of the ideal- ist tradition.

In Feuerbach' s anthropotheistic conception of the hmnan, God is completely ruled out, yet still, to fill this metaphysical void, the human is himself deified "homo homini deus esf.

Christianity is re- placed by another religion: Anthropotheism is also a religion, only a different one. The object of deification is different and new, but the fact of deification itself is not new.

Instead of the bog-chelovek god-man we now have the chelovek-bog man-god Vmesto boga-cheloveka my imeem teper' cheloveka-boga. Only the word order has changed.

For is the difference between the bog-chelovek and the chelovek-bog really that great? For is not the solitary Christian God entirely cut out by the im- age and likeness of man?

Speshnev is more inclined to subscribe to Stimer's anthropology of the egoist, self-authoritative individual. Both God-man and man-god are mental abstractions of the actually existing individual.

Every individual is a being on his own, cannot be identified with the whole of humanity, is an "alien authority", who decides for himself the value of all things ibid: Objective criteria do not exist: "Such categories as beauty and ugli- ness, good and bad, noble and base, always were and always will remain a matter of taste" ibid: Speshnev does not acknowledge any author- ity over the individual personality and postulates an anthropology of the self-determining, autonomous individual Ego.

Speshnev is the first Russian thinker to transpose Feuerbach' s anthro- potheism to Russian actuality and to translate this term into Russian.

He juxtaposes Feuerbach' s anthropology of 'the human become god' to a typical Russian Christological concept, the Bogochelovek or God-Man.

In Russian Orthodoxy, the term Bogochelovek is employed to denominate Christ the incamate. The word is a compound fiom Bog God and che- lovek human and refers to the compound nature of Jesus Christ.

In the person of Christ, God became human. In translating Feuerbach' s term, Speshnev simply puts the parts of the word Bogochelovek in an inverted order and turns it into chelovek-bog.

In this manner, the idea of God be- come human is literally opposed to the idea of the human become god. For Speshnev, this radical reversal in the relationship between God and human is no more than a linguistic operation: "only the word order has changed" ibid: Dostoevsky's Mephistopheles It is highly probable that Dostoevsky was acquainted with Speshnev's ideas and his use of the term chelovekobog.

For, in the period that the Russian writer participated in the Petrashevsky group, the mysterious and attractive Speshnev exerted a strange but vast influence over him.

Dosto- evsky met Speshnev in 1 and from then on attended several of Spesh- nev' s lectures, among which were a speech on religion and the refutation of the existence of God Saraskina, Speshnev' s personality must have had a great effect on the young Dostoevsky, for he decided to join him in a more radical group than Petrashevsky' s.

Speshnev was ideo- logically and politically of different temper than Petrashevsky. Both aimed for fundamental social changes in Russia, but whereas Pet- rashevsky believed that this was to be realized through gradual, long-term evolution, Speshnev proclaimed a radical revolt.

In January 1 Dostoevsky also became a partici- pant in this secret revolutionary circle and actively recruited other mem- bers. Speshnev certainly had some enigmatic power over Dostoevsky.

To his doctor Janovsky, who had observed that his patient had grown irri- tated, Dostoevsky admitted that his state of annoyance had to do with Speshnev: For I have taken money from Speshnev he named a sum of about five hundred rubles.

Now I am with him and his. I'll never be able to pay back such a sum, and he would not even take the money back, that is the kind of man he is.

Do you understand, from now on I have a Mephistopheles of my own! Quoted in Frank, ; Pokrovskaia, [] Dostoevsky's anxious feeling that he had sold his soul to Speshnev cannot be merely explained by his fmancial indebtedness to him, for this was not the first time he had borrowed money from others; it was rather induced by his engagement in Speshnev' s radical poUtical project.

On April 23, Dostoevsky, Speshnev and other members of the Petrashevsky group and the secret society were arrested and sentenced to 4 Evidence for this is a letter from the poet Apollon Nikolaevich Maikov, only published in Maikov relates how Dostoevsk7 came to his house one night and tried to convince him to join him in this secret society.

He said of Petrashevsky that he was "a fool, an actor and a chatterer; nothing ever sensible came out of him" Quoted in Pokrovskaia, ] The Man-God in Dostoevsky's Works 85 death.

This capital punishment was in extremis, as the convicts were al- ready standing before the execution squad, commuted to hard labor.

Speshnev certainly left a profound impact on Dostoevsky. As Dostoevsky relates "I could probably never have become like Nechaev, but as for becoming a Nechaevets, 1 cannot guarantee, perhaps, possibly Fictionalizing the demon Speshnev' s personality and radical ideas thus had a great impact on the young Dostoevsky, at a time that he still struggled with established Chris- tian and social doctrines and flirted with atheist and socialist theories.

Speshnev' s effect on Dostoevsky was so enduring that more than twenty years later the writer aimed to came to terms with his past friendship by fictionalizing Speshnev in the protagonist of Besy Though Speshnev' s name is not to be found in the notebooks for Besy, Dosto- evsky researchers are unanimous that Stavrogin is in part modeled on Speshnev PSS, ; Grossman, f ; Frank, ; Mo- chulsky, Stavrogin is given the same forename Nikolai and spent, like Speshnev, some time in Switzerland, where he engaged in 6 revolutionary circles.

Upon his return to Russia, he is an advocate of atheism and secret revolutionary societies. With his enigmatic personal- ity, he holds sway over the other characters and imposes them with his ideas.

Dostoevsky describes him in the same words as he pictured Spesh- nev: "Sometimes silently curious and caustic, like Mephistopheles" PSS, Stavrogin' s confession to Father Tikhon that the idea of good and evil is merely a prejudice, is reminiscent of Speshnev' s postulate that such crite- During the staged execution.

Speshnev had participated in the Swiss Sonder bund war, where he had fought as a volun- teer for the liberals Frank, When drawing out the plan for Besy, in which for the fnst time in Dostoevsky's works the term chelovekobog appears, the writer certainly recalled his former Mephistopheles and the discussions and revolutionary sphere of the secret society from his youth.

Dostoevsky started working on this novel from the end of on, and pubhshed it serially in the joumal Russki VestnikhQtwQQn and In the novel, the idea of the chelovekobog is spelled out by the char- acter Kirillov.

Aleksei Nilych Kirillov is in the beginning of the narrative first part, third chapter, IV introduced as a young civil engineer, who had spent four years abroad and just recently returned to Russia to con- struct a railway bridge.

He is characterized as an absent-minded man with a tongue-tie. During the lonely stay abroad he has grown alienated from the Russian social and cultural climate, and, as a consequence, he is now unable to communicate his thoughts to his Russian acquaintances in a flu- ent and sociable manner.

Dostoevsky's notebooks for Besy show that the writer came up with this character rather late hi the writing process.

The first reference to Kirillov, at that point still called the Engineer, appears in a sketch from September It is only in the notes for the final part of the novel, writ- ten in , that the character becomes more outlined.

At that time the first two parts of Besy were aheady published in Russkii vestnik Dosto- evsky, ; f. In these notes, there are only sketchy traces of Kirillov' s argument as it appeared in the final version of the text.

There is aheady mention of BCirillov's suicide and some particular "reason" for this planned act PSS, Yet, never in the notebooks is there any reference to the term chelovekobog.

This suggests that Dostoevsky drew up the whole conception of the chelovekobog only in the very last phase of the writing process.

The notebooks do not reveal any actual source that might have in- spired the writer in the creation of this fictional character and his theory of the chelovekobog.

It is most likely, though, that he borrowed the term chelovekobog and the Feuerbachian pathos of Kirillov' s line of thought from his "Mephistopheles", Nikolai Speshnev.

As described above, the mysterious and charismatic personality of Speshnev served as a model for The Man-God in Dostoevsky 's Works 87 the novel's protagonist, Nikolai Stavrogin.

In this character, and espe- cially in his relation to the other characters, there are echoes of Spesh- nev's personality and the enduring impact he had on the young Dosto- evsky during the period of their acquaintance.

Stavrogin' s personality is so complex and full of contradictions, that he infuses the different characters with the most divergent ideas.

The premises from which Kirillov deduces his conception of both God and humanity are an echo of Ludwig Feuerbach's atheistic human- ism.

In Das Wesen des Christentums Feuerbach brushed aside the idea of a metaphysical Godhead: God does not exist in reality, but is a mere projection of the human, a product of visualizing humanity in ideal terms.

Kirillov's ''most great idea" is substantiated by a similar reasoning PSS, He claims that God and the promise of eternal Ufe in the other world are merely constructions of human imagination.

Humanity has thought up the notions of God and afterlife, because the human ex- periences this life as painful and believes death to be the sole but highly frightening means of escaping this tormenting and meaningless life PSS, 93f ; Until now, the human was in need of this deception of a higher divine entity and the promise of a better life in the hereafter, since he could not endure the thought that this painful and useless life holds no other alternative than death.

In his logic, the only consequential act is a conscious and self-willed suicide. This new human is to appear when humanity overcomes the fear of death.

For him, "it will be the same to live or not to live" PSS, And Kirillov takes upon himself the task to kill himself in order to show the rest of humanity that death should not be feared.

Kirillov' s argument for committing suicide is that he aims to demon- strate that God and a heavenly afterlife are mere fabrications of the human mind, and that once this truth is laid bare, the logical outcome is that the human is himself a god.

His theory of self-deification is wholly built around the phenomenon of death. In aspiring to overcome death, Kirillov in fact wants to provide an altemative to one of the most fundamental doctrines in Christianity, this is the resurrection of Christ.

In the act of resurrection, Christ's divine nature and his Oneness with the Father was revealed. Simultaneously, his rising from the dead held a promise for hu- manity, this is that humanity would eventually attain a state of immortal- ity in the afterlife.

Christian anthropology is grounded in the belief in the immortality of the soul and the promise of resurrection in the Heavenly Kingdom.

In Kirillov' s anthropology of the new human that overcomes the need for a Deity and a better life in the other world, this fundamental Christian doctrine is turned upside down.

Durch die Beweglichkeit besteht aber das Problem, dass bei dem Betätigen der Hubvorrichtung bei dem Anheben des Oberbaus gegenüber dem Unterbau während des Übergangs von dem Brechbetrieb in den Fahrbetrieb keine exakte Ausrichtung von Oberbau und Unterbau gewährleistet ist.

Neben einander zugeordneten Keilflächen können auch abgeschrägte Lager der Hubmittel, insbesondere Hydraulikzylinder, vorgesehen sein, welche bei einem Anheben eine automatische Zentrierung bewirken.

Diese sind jedoch bevorzugt so ausgebildet, dass diese während des Brechbetriebs keine wesentlichen Kräfte von dem Oberbau auf den Unterbau übertragen.

Alternativ sind auch zwei Radreihen einsetzbar. Gegenüber mehreren Fahrwerken mit jeweils nur einer Antriebsreihe oder einem Fahrwerk mit mehr als drei Antriebsreihen, die im Rahmen der Erfindung grundsätzlich als Alternative eingesetzt werden können, zeichnet sich ein Fahrwerk mit genau zwei Antriebsreihen durch eine sehr gute Manövrierbarkeit und Wendigkeit aus.

Das Fahrwerk kann mit seinen vorzugsweise zwei Antriebsreihen, insbesondere Raupenketten, längs oder quer zu der Transportrichtung des Brechgutes angeordnet sein.

Hinsichtlich der Belastungen der mobilen Brechanlage durch die besonders kritischen dynamischen Kräfte ist auch die konkrete Ausgestaltung der Brechanlage von Bedeutung.

Die mobile Brechanlage kann entsprechend auch ohne Weiteres mit einem Backenbrecher versehen werden, der durch seinen Antrieb erhebliche Unwuchtkräfte erzeugt, die als dynamische Kräfte in den Oberbau eingeleitet werden.

Die Stützen können insbesondere nach Art eines Pontons als Stahlbaustruktur ausgebildet sein. Als weiterer Vorteil ergibt sich, dass die Höhe der mobilen Brechanlage reduziert werden kann, weil die Stützen nicht mit einer Verstellmimik oder dergleichen ausgerüstet werden müssen.

Zur weiteren Ausgestaltung der mobilen Brechanlage gehört üblicherweise eine Abwurffördereinrichtung mit zumindest einem Abwurfausleger, der als Bandförderer ausgebildet sein kann.

Der Abwurfausleger kann entweder direkt unter den Brecher und eine optional dem Brecher vorgeschaltete Absiebeinrichtung geführt sein.

Alternativ kann unter dem Brecher und der diesem optional vorgeschalteten Absiebeinrichtung auch ein zusätzliches Abzugsband vorgesehen sein, welches dem Abwurfausleger vorgelagert ist.

Unabhängig von der optionalen Vorschaltung eines Abzugsbandes ist es von Vorteil, wenn der Abwurfausleger auch in vertikaler Richtung geschwenkt werden kann, um die Abwurfhöhe einzustellen.

Um das in dem Aufnahmebunker gesammelte Brechgut dem Brecher zuzuführen, ist üblicherweise eine Transporteinrichtung in Form eines Förder-Plattenbandes oder dergleichen vorgesehen.

Hierzu kann aber auch eine Aneinanderreihung von gleichsinnig drehenden Transport- oder Siebwalzen dienen, unterhalb derer hier bereits abgesiebtes feinkörniges Material mittels dem erwähnten zusätzlichen Abzugsband unmittelbar dem Abwurfausleger zugeführt wird.

Dabei ist zu berücksichtigen, dass ein solcher Hydraulikbagger durch seinen Baggerarm und seinen Vorantrieb einen gewissen Einsatzradius aufweist, so dass ein ständiges Nachführen der mobilen Brechanlage nicht notwendig ist.

Des Weiteren kann die mobile Brechanlage auch besonders leicht zu einem anderen Einsatzort bewegt werden, wobei dann der Oberbau durch die bevorzugt hydraulische Hubeinrichtung in dem Fahrbetrieb sicher auf dem Unterbau abgestützt ist.

Die Erfindung wird im Folgenden anhand einer lediglich ein Ausführungsbeispiel darstellenden Zeichnung erläutert.

Es zeigen:. Deshalb ist in dem dargestellten Ausführungsbeispiel zwischen dem Förderer 6 und dem Brecher 5 eine Siebeinrichtung 7 angeordnet, welche den Feinkornanteil ausschleust.

Der ausgesiebte Feinkornanteil sowie das gebrochene Brechgut B gelangen unterhalb des Brechers 5 auf eine Abwurffördereinrichtung in Form eines Abwurfauslegers 8.

Der Abwurfausleger 8 kann um eine vertikale Achse schwenkbar sein, um gegenüber einem mehr oder weniger quer zur Förderrichtung x des Brechgutes B in der mobilen Brechanlage verlaufenden Bandsystems 9 die Abwurfweite zu variieren.

Bei dem in 1 dargestellten Fahrbetrieb der mobilen Brechanlage ist der Oberbau 3 von dem Unterbau 1 durch eine Hubvorrichtung 11 von einem Untergrund U abgehoben, so dass zwischen den Stützen 10a , 10b und dem Untergrund U ein Abstand verbleibt, der auch bei gewissen Unebenheiten ein Verfahren der mobilen Brechanlage ermöglicht.

In dem Ausführungsbeispiel sind die Stützen 10a , 10b durch eine Stahlbaustruktur gebildet, die bei einem vergleichsweise einfachen und kostengünstigen Aufbau eine sehr hohe Festigkeit und Tragkraft gewährleistet.

Einer vergleichenden Betrachtung der 1 und der 2 ist zu entnehmen, dass durch ein Einfahren von Hydraulikzylindern 13 der Hubvorrichtung 11 der Oberbau 3 bzw.

Insbesondere sind die Stellmittel der Hubvorrichtung 11 , in dem Ausführungsbeispiel also die Hydraulikzylinder 13 nur an dem Oberbau 3 oder dem Unterbau 1 befestigt.

Wie der Detailausschnitt der 2 zeigt, können die Hydraulikzylinder 13 vorzugsweise so weit eingefahren werden, dass der Oberbau 3 von dem Unterbau 1 mechanisch vollständig entkoppelt ist.

Sämtliche auf den Oberbau 3 wirkenden statischen und dynamischen Kräfte werden von den stabilen, starren Stützen 10a , 10b aufgenommen.

Zwischen dem Oberbau 3 und dem Unterbau 1 sind allenfalls noch Versorgungsleitungen vorgesehen, die aber keine wesentliche Kraftübertragung bewirken.

So ist üblicherweise das Fahrwerk 2 mit einem elektrischen Antrieb versehen, der von dem Oberbau 3 gespeist wird.

Daraus ergibt sich das Problem, dass die relative Position des Oberbaus 3 gegenüber dem Unterbau 1 bei einer Betätigung des Hubvorrichtung 11 zu einem Anheben des Oberbaus 3 nicht exakt festgelegt ist.

Lediglich exemplarisch zeigt das Ausführungsbeispiel der 2 in der Detailansicht Hydraulikzylinder 13 der Hubvorrichtung 11 , die bei einem Ausfahren in eine kegelförmig verbreiterte Aufnahme 14 des Unterbaus 1 eingreifen.

Zusätzlich oder alternativ können aber auch an dem Oberbau und dem Unterbau einander zugeordnete Zentrier- und Führungsmittels 15 , z.

Keilflächen, Führungszapfen oder Führungsschienen vorgesehen werden. So können beispielsweise auch Zentriermittel nach Art eines Königszapfens vorgesehen sein, wobei jedoch üblicherweise eine Zentrierung an zumindest zwei voneinander beabstandeten Stellen notwendig ist, um eine präzise Ausrichtung und die Übertragung von horizontalen Kräften und Momenten zu gewährleisten.

Die erheblichen Belastungen bei dem in 2 dargestellten Brechbetrieb wirken damit nicht auf das Fahrwerk 2.

Zusätzlich wird auf empfindliche bewegliche Stützen verzichtet, wie sie aus dem Stand der Technik bekannt sind. Die Liste ist nicht Bestandteil der deutschen Patent- bzw.

Mobile Brechanlage mit einem zumindest ein Fahrwerk 2 aufweisenden Unterbau 1 und einem Oberbau 3 , der zumindest einen Aufnahmebunker 4 , einen Brecher 5 und eine Transporteinrichtung aufweist, dadurch gekennzeichnet , dass der Oberbau 3 starre Stützen 10a , 10b aufweist und dass zwischen Oberbau 3 und Unterbau 1 eine Hubvorrichtung 11 zum Anheben und Absenken des Oberbaus 3 gegenüber dem Unterbau 1 vorgesehen ist, wobei in einem Fahrbetrieb der Oberbau 3 durch die Hubvorrichtung 11 auf dem Unterbau 1 abgestützt und wobei in einem Brechbetrieb der Oberbau 3 durch ein Absenken mittels der Hubvorrichtung 11 derart mittels der Stützen 10a , 10b auf einem Untergrund U abstellbar ist, dass die Stützen 10a , 10b das Gewicht des Oberbaus 3 sowie auf den Oberbau 3 wirkende dynamische und statische Kräfte zumindest zu einem Teil unmittelbar auf den Untergrund U übertragen.

Mobile Brechanlage nach Anspruch 1, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Fahrwerk 2 zwei parallele Antriebsreihen, insbesondere ein Raupenkettenpaar aufweist.

Mobile Brechanlage nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das zumindest eine Fahrwerk 2 in einer Transportrichtung x des Brechgutes B in der Brechanlage gesehen zwischen dem Aufnahmebunker 4 und dem Brecher 5 angeordnet ist, wobei eine erste Stütze 10a unterhalb des Aufnahmebunkers 4 und eine zweite Stützte 10b unterhalb des Brechers 5 angeordnet ist.

Mobile Brechanlage nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Brecher 5 ein Backenbrecher ist. Mobile Brechanlage nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Oberbau 3 durch ein Absenken mittels der Hubvorrichtung 11 derart mittels der Stützen 10a , 10b auf einem Untergrund U abstellbar ist, dass die Stützen 10a , 10b das Gewicht des Oberbaus 3 sowie auf den Oberbau 3 wirkende dynamische und statische Kräfte vollständig unmittelbar auf den Untergrund U übertragen.

Mobile Brechanlage nach Anspruch 6, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Oberbau 3 und der Unterbau 1 einander zugeordnete Keilflächen als Zentriermittel aufweisen.

Mobile Brechanlage nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Hubvorrichtung 11 Hydraulikzylinder 13 umfasst.

Mobile Brechanlage nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 9, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Hubvorrichtung 11 Dämpfungselemente umfasst.

Sistema de trituracion movil con una subscontruccion que comprende al menos un armazon y una superestructura que comprende al menos una tolva de recepcion un dispositivo triturador y de transporte que comprende soportes rigidos y se proporciona un dispositivo de elevacion para elevar y bajar la superestrucutra con relacion a la subconstruccion entre la superestructura y la subconstruccion.

USB2 de. EPA1 de. CNB de. AUB2 de. CAC de. CLA1 de. DEA1 de. MXB de. PEA1 de. RUC2 de. WOA1 de.

USB2 en. Verfahren zum aufstellen eines fahrbaren, mit luftreifen versehenen zerkleinerungsaggregates oder aehnlichen geraetes in arbeitsstellung und fahrbares aggregat zur durchfuehrung dieses verfahrens.

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